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HISTORY OF CANADA.   255

out in his report the danger arising from "that scramble for local appropriations " which would take place so long as private members were allowed to propose money votes. In the Maritime Provinces this vicious system remained unchanged for some years longer.

Lower Canada Dissatisfied.—This Act, as has been said, was forced upon Lower Canada, and its provisions were in several respects not such as to reconcile the majority there to the union. The population of Canada was then about 1,100,000, of which the lower province had 630,000, and the upper 470,000. Equality of representation under these circumstances was looked upon by the French-Canadians as the unfair creation of a majority against them in the assembly. The exclusion of the French language from the records of parliament was naturally resented, even though the use of that language iii debate was not forbidden. Upon this language question the union parliament proved better than their fears. Another injustice of which they rightly complained was in respect to the public debt. Upper Canada had— particularly after 1836—entered upon a career of wild extravagance in public works, and her debt was over $5,000,000, while Lower Canada, with a larger population, had but a trifling debt. It was urged, however, by the upper province that the expenditure upon the canal system—for which a large part of the debt had been

curred—was as much in the interest of the lower province as in her own. Whatever the reason, no compensation was given to Lower Canada for the burden of Upper Canada's debt, which she was now compelled to share.

CHAPTER XLI.

RESPONSIBLE (OVERNMENT INAUGURATED.

New Brunswick.—We must now turn again to the Maritime Provinces, where we left the people of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia somewhat jubilant over their prospects in the autumn of 1837. In the former province an unyielding lieutenant-governor had given place to Sir John Harvey, who introduced into the executive council a slight leaven of reform. For a time political


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