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HISTORY OF CANADA.   253

was a foregone conclusion, though Neilson, Quesnal and de Lery voted nay with vigorous protest.

Upper Canada's Consent.—In Upper Canada the governor's task was not so easy. The Family Compact, feeling securely entrenched in power, were opposed to the union. But their day

was past. Moderate men were disgusted with their arrogance in the hour of seeming victory. Their refusal to make any concession, particularly in the matter of the Clergy Reserves, opened the eyes of many who, in 1836, had supported " Head and British connection " against "Mackenzie and republicanism." Without at all justifying rebellion, these were now fain to admit that Mackenzie had made a truer estimate than they of the real object of the official party. Lord Durham's coming had put new life into the

reformers of upper Canada. As CHARLES POULETT THOMPSON. early as July, 1838, Francis Hincks   (LORD SYDRNHAM.) had begun the publication at To-

ronto of The Examiner, with the motto, " Responsible government and the voluntary principle." When Lord Durham's report appeared it was hailed with delight, and during the summer of 1839 "Durham meetings " were held in all parts of the province. The tide of reaction was at the full when the new governor arrived in Upper Canada. The result was seen in the vote upon the union project in the assembly, where reformers and moderate conservatives joined to carry it against the Family Compact. It required all the great tact of the governor to reconcile the legislative council to the union, but in the end his efforts were successful.

The Union Act, 1840.—It now only remained to have the Act passed by the British parliament. This was accomplished on the 28th of July, 1840. But not without protest. Lord Gosford, in the House of Lords, declared that the Act was most unfair to the French-Canadian majority of Lower Canada, to whose loyalty

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