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241   HISTORY OF CANADA.

Kingston, found guilty, and executed. Upon his trial he was defended with much ability by a young lawyer who afterwards became a distinguished Canadian statesman—John A. Macdonald.

Raid on Windsor.—Early in December there was a raid on Windsor. The invaders were vigorously repulsed by Colonel Prince, who, with somewhat excessive zeal, shot some of his prisoners without trial. This was the last attempt upon Canadian soil, though for some months longer alarming rumors continued to disquiet the Canadian provinces.

The Result of the Outbreaks.—Of these Canadian out-breaks we may say with Joseph Howe, of Nova Scotia, "They were impolitic, unjustifiable and cruel." In Upper Canada, the honest but impulsive Mackenzie had failed to discern that the rebuff the reformers had experienced could be but temporary. In Lower Canada, Papineau had unwisely declined to accept concessions because they were not sufficiently full. The outbreaks were cruel, not only to those who were led to take part in them, but also to all those who were working for the cause of reform ; for they gave the Family Compact a pretext for fastening upon all their opponents a common stigma of disloyalty. But the troubles in Canada convinced the Imperial authorities that there must be a radical defect somewhere in the system of colonial government, and energetic measures were at once taken for its discovery. Lord Durham was sent out to Canada as High Commissioner, and, as a result of his celebrated report, "responsible government" was soon conceded. One thing, therefore, may be said. If the rebel-lion in the two Canadas led—as no doubt it did lead—to Lord Durham's report, and so to the enlargement of colonial self-government, then not only Canada but British colonies the world over should have a kindly feeling for Papineau and Mackenzie.

CHAPTER XXXYIII.

" A NEW AND IMPROVED CONSTITUTION."

Dark Days.—During the winter of 1837-38 and the following spring there was " literally a reign of terror " in the two Canadas, and the jails were crowded with prisoners charged with complicity in the rebellious movements. These, as we have seen, had been


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