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HISTORY OF CANADA.   243

Subsequent Frontier Movements. —Before turning again to the internal affairs of the Canadian provinces, it will be well to mention shortly certain frontier raids by lawless American "sympathizers" which followed the Canadian outbreaks. During January and February, 1838, there were confused proceedings along the Detroit River, and some sharp skirmishes took place in which the would-be invaders were roughly handled. Early in March an unsuccessful raid was made from Sandusky upon Pelee Island, the raiders being driven off with severe loss. These incursions were part of the plan of campaign agreed upon at Navy Island. The Canadian refugees, however, soon saw the hopelessness of such proceedings, and very few, if any, of them were implicated in the subsequent movements. In May, 1838, the Caroline exploit was imitated at Wells' Island, near Kingston, the British steamer Sir Robert Peel being burned by a lawless band from the American shore. In June another band of marauders was dispersed at Short Hills on the Niagara frontier. During the sununer an attempt was made to organize another invasion on the Detroit frontier, but, failing to secure arms from the United States arsenal, the enterprise collapsed.

Hunters' Lodges.—In the autumn "Hunters' lodges" were organized all along the American frontier from Cleveland to Lake Champlain, with design to invade Canada. A rising was fomented in the Richelieu district, and Dr. Robert Nelson—a brother of Dr. Wolfred Nelson—led a band from the- United States which took possession of Napierville (November, 1838). He quickly retired, however, upon the approach of a force sent against him by Sir John Colborne, under whose orders the disaffected district was laid waste with much cruelty.

Von Schultz.—Prescott was during this same month threatened by a somewhat formidable force which had gathered at Ogdensburg on the opposite shore. A small body of men under an enthusiastic Polish patriot, Von Schultz, landed on the Canadian side, where they were quickly obliged to take refuge in a round stone mill. Their friends failed to send them any reinforcements, and on the 16th of November Colonel Dundas arrived with a force from Kingston, and he at once opened a vigorous artillery fire upon Von Schultz's stronghold. After losing heavily Von Schultz surrendered at discretion. He was afterwards tried at


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