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HISTORY OF CANADA.   235

fulfilled, and for many years the Scotch settlers were without any spiritual guide other than the Anglican chaplains of the Hudson's Bay Company and the Roman Catholic bishop, Provencher, who arrived in 1819. The first effort toward education in Manitoba was made in 1820, in which year the Rev. Mr. West started a school in the settlement. The long rivalry between the two companies had brought therm both to the verge of bankruptcy. After their union there was no longer need for the double staff, and many were thus thrown out of employment The greater part of these—many of them half-breeds—settled along the Red River, and the colony more than doubled its population. With Bishop Provencher, the first Roman Catholic bishop of the North-West, came a number of French-Canadians from Lower Canada. The de Meurons remained for a time in the colony, where they were joined by other Swiss immigrants ; but after the great flood of 1826 they all migrated to the banks of the Mississippi.

The Great West.—The governor of the Hudson's Bay Company was now the energetic George Simpson—afterwards Sir

George Simpson—under whom the operations of the company were pushed far into the north-west, and stockaded posts were built even on the banks of the Yukon. Sir John Franklin and other explorers traversed the northern wilds and gave to the world a larger geographical knowledge of them. But the company made no effort toward settlement, even on the fertile plains of the west. On the contrary, in the interest of their monopoly they spread the report that the whole country was, by reason of the cold, unfit for settlement. For many years to come, there-fore, the colony of Assiniboia alone need

claim attention. It was now to a great extent cut off from Canada, the fur being carried to Europe chiefly by way of Hudson Bay. Montreal was shorn of its former glory, and Fort William, the old storehouse and rendezvous of the Nor'-Wester partners, became a mere trading post.

SIR GEORGE SPMPSON.

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