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232   HISTORY OF CANADA.

Seven Oaks.—In 1815 the Hudson's Bay Company appointed Robert Semple governor-in-chief of the Northern Department of Rupert's Land, and gave him power to hold courts and to appoint sheriffs to enforce the company's rule in those regions. He arrived at Red River in the autumn with a new colony governor and a fresh supply of Scotch settlers from Kildonan, Sutherlandshireseventy-two in all. Fort Gibraltar and another Nor'-Wester post at Pembina were seized, and Duncan Cameron, the resident officer above referred to, was sent a prisoner to England. In order to keep open the communication between Montreal and their more westerly posts, the officers of the North-West Company took decisive action. They gathered together a considerable force, Canadian employees of the company and half-breeds, and in June, 1816, a lamentable collision took place at Seven Oaks, not far from Fort Douglas, iii which Governor Semple and about twenty others lost their lives. The settlers, who had taken no part in this affray, surrendered Fort Douglas to the victorious Nor'-Westers, and, abandoning the settlement, started for Hudson Bay, intending to return to Scotland.

Lord Selkirk Retaliates.—At this time Lord Selkirk him-self was on his way from Montreal to the colony. He had with him over one hundred soldiers, officers and men, of the disbanded de Meurons regiment, who were to become settlers. His rivals of the North-West Company said that settlement was a secondary consideration ; that Lord Selkirk's real purpose was to employ these soldiers in ejecting them, the Nor'-IV-esters, from the territory. On his way up Lord Selkirk received news of Seven Oaks, and of the capture of Fort Douglas. He thereupon seized the chief depot of the Nor'-Westers at Fort William, arrested the leading partners, and sent them prisoners to Canada. Proceeding onward to Red River, Selkirk recaptured Fort Douglas, and the Nor'-Westers in turn were driven from their posts. The settlers, on their way to Hudson Bay, heard the news and returned again to their homes.

The Two Companies Unite. —Meanwhile the Imperial authorities had interposed to stop the strife, and, under instructions from Lord Bathurst, Sir J. C. Sherbrooke sent commissioners to the North-West to enforce mutual restitution. There was little further friction, and after Selkirk's death in 1820 the rival com-


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