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consequent removal to Quebec, the Earl of Dalhousie succeeded him in Nova Scotia. Four years later he, too, was in turn promoted, and we have already seen what a stormy eight years he spent in Lower Canada. His four years in Nova Scotia (1816-1820) were much less troubled, though even here he evinced toward the close of his term great impatience with the assembly because of its refusal to adopt his views on the question of road grants and a provincial survey. Notwithstanding this little friction, Dalhousie was regarded in Nova Scotia as a most able and useful officer. The depression in the trade of the Maritime Provinces which set in after the close of the war of 1812 led to a movement for the improvement of agriculture. Here, as in New Brunswick, it had been somewhat neglected for lumbering and the coast fisheries. The letters of the Hon. John Young, written under the scm de phone of "Agricola," are frequently mentioned as having brought about the formation of an agricultural society, of which Dalhousie was patron, and to which the assembly made a liberal grant.

Higher Education. —In 1805, after King's College, Windsor, had received its charter as a sectarian college, the Rev. Dr. Thomas McCulloch proposed that the college should be open to all, but failed to secure the adoption of his plan. He therefore opened a "grammar school." In 1816 the Pictou Academy was established by the legislature as its successor, but in the Act a clause was inserted that the trustees should be either Anglican or Presbyterian. The effect of this was to make "Pictou Academy" a Presbyterian institution. In 1821 a provincial college was established at Halifax, and named, after the lieutenant-governor, Dalhousie College.* An efturt was made to unite Dalhousie College with King's College, but the Archbishop of Canterbury, it is said, disapproved of the idea, and the effort was unsuccessful.

Sir James Kempt.—In 1820, when Sir James Kempt became lieutenant-governor, an order-in-council was passed in England reannexing Cape Breton to Nova Scotia. This caused a great outcry upon the island,, particularly from those officials for whom satisfactory positions could not be found upon the amalgamated staff. Legal redress was sought before the Privy Council in England, but there the order-in-council was declared valid, and

It was not opened until 1333. See post, p. 267.

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