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HISTORY OF CANADA.   223

pine timber of the province, regulations were framed by the lieutenant-governor and his council, under which a duty of one shilling per ton was laid upon all pine cut upon Crown lands. The assembly protested that this was a most injurious tax upon one of the staple commodities of the Province. This was in 1819, and from that time until his sudden death in 1823 the lieutenant-governor was in perpetual difficulties with the assembly over money matters. For his efforts on behalf of education, however, he received the thanks of the assembly. Both in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia what was known as the Madras system was introduced, and the results are reported to have been phenomenal.

Agriculture Improved.---in 1824 Sir Howard Douglas became lieutenant-governor. lie was an energetic officer and did much to encourage agriculture, road-building and other public improvements. Before his time the fisheries, lumbering, and ship-building had so engrossed attention that agriculture was neglected, and the province depended upon foreign lands for its food supply. The lieutenant-governor's protest did much good in bringing about a change in this respect. Sir Howard Douglas was also a man of letters. It was largely owing to his efforts that the college at Fredericton was placed upon a more efficient basis.

A Destructive Fire.—In 1825 occurred the great fire upon the Miramichi. The lumber industry had drawn many immigrants to this region, and for one hundred miles along the river bank there was a thickly populated strip of territory backed by dense forests. It contained four thriving towns and many villages. All were wiped out by the conflagration. Nearly two hundred people perished, and the pecuniary loss was not less than a million dollars. The calamity caused great distress, and an appeal for aid drew forth a generous response from the other provinces and from the United States.

Boundary Trouble with Maine. —In 1827 there was much excitement iii the province over the attempt of the governor of Maine to assert the jurisdiction of the United States over the territory then still in dispute between Maine and New Brunswick. Commissioners had been appointed under the Treaty of Ghent (1814) to settle the ownership of the islands in Passamaquoddy Bay and the boundary line beyond the head waters of the St.


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