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222   HISTORY OF CANADA.

their electing government candidates ; hence the name by which the assembly, thus elected, was known—" the bread-and-butter parliament." The result was that the reformers were utterly routed. Mackenzie, Bidwell, Lount, Perry, Matthews, and other leading men of the party were defeated, and in the new assembly the Family Compact held complete control. An Act was passed (1837) to prevent the death of the sovereign operating as a dissolution of parliament—a perfectly proper measure in principle, but one which, in the precarious state of the king's health at that time, was regarded as an attempt to lengthen the existence of this friendly assembly.

 

 

CHAT"1Flt XXXIV.

5FW BRUNSWICK (1815-1837).

"Military Settlements." --Ini New Brunswick and Nova Scotia there was very little agitation for radical reform in the system of government until after 1831). There was, indeed, on the part of the assemblies in both provinces a continual effort to remedy individual abuses which grew- out of the rule of the Family Compact, but as late as 1836, Joseph Howe, of Nova Scotia, complained that very little had been effected. The record of events in New Brunswick still continues meagre. The province had no resident lieutenant, governor from t'arleton's departure in 1803 until the appointment of Major-General George Stracey Smyth in 1817, the government in the interval being administered by the successive presidents of the council. At the close of the war of 1812 a large number of disbanded soldiers were settled on the St. John River in what is now the county of Victoria. These "military settlements," as they were called, were formed not only to forward the development of the country but also to protect the frontier of the province and to facilitate communication with the two Canadas. The census of 1824 showed the total population of the province to be nearly 75,000.

The Assembly Asserts Itself. — During the time of

Lieutenant-Governor Smyth (1817-1823) the assembly showed a strong disposition to assert its right to control financial matters. In a commendable effort to prevent the too rapid exhaustion of the


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