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HISTORY OF CANADA.   221

sions already granted should be held inviolate, the scale for the future should be settled upon a moderate basis. The appointment of a board to audit public accounts was authorized, though the governor was allowed a discretion as to laying these accounts before the assembly, if to do so would, in his opinion, be detrimental to the public service.

Sir F. B. Head Disappoints Reformers.—The reformers of Upper Canada expected much from Sir Francis Bond Head, who had been appointed by the Melbourne ministry in England, and was described as himself a "tried reformer." Toward the end of February, 1836, he appointed to the executive council three well-known members of the popular party, Baldwin, Dunn, and Rolph ; and men began to think that a new era had dawned. The lieutenant-governor, however, insisted that he alone was responsible for the executive govennuent of the province, and that he was, therefore, under no obligation to consult the members of his council. Early in March, without any previous intimation to them of his intention, he refused the Crown's assent to a bill which had passed both branches of parliament. Thereupon the executive council resigned ; the majority, it is said, availing them-selves of this means of getting rid of their reform colleagues. The Family Compact vigorously applauded the lieutenant-governor's firm stand, and he at once threw himself into their hands. A new executive council was appointed, exclusively from that party. The assembly promptly passed a vote of want of confidence in the new council and refused to grant supplies. Acrid much excitement the lieutenant-governor dissolved the assembly.

The Election of 1838.-Into the election which ensued Sir F. B. Head threw himself with the utmost vigor, and, as was afterward said, "adroitly turned the issue." In reply to flattering addresses he delivered the most inflammatory harangues, denouncing Mackenzie and the other popular leaders as traitors to British connection. Hume's letter was paraded as the platform of the reformers. Actual grievances were quite ignored. We have Lord Durham's authority for saying that the election was unfairly conducted ; that all the powers of the executive were brought into play to secure a favorable result for the ruling faction. The constituencies were told in the most unblushing fashion that their claim to receive benefits from the executive would depend upon


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