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220   IIISTORY OF CANADA.

than that of his predecessor to the cause of colonial reform, and, though the election of 1834 resulted in favor of the reformers of Upper Canada, they were unable to make any headway against executive misgovernment, which now apparently had the support of the colonial office. About this time the British radical, Hume, wrote a letter in which he spoke of the evil effect upon the colonies of the " baneful domination " of England. Mackenzie published the letter in his newspaper with apparent approval, and at once the cry of disloyalty was vehemently raised against him.

The Celebrated "Seventh Report."--At the general election of 1834 Mackenzie was of course re-elected, and the new assembly expunged the whole record of the proceedings against him from the journals of the House as subversive of the rights of electors. In the first session, also, the famous "Seventh Report of the Committee on Grievances" was adopted by the House, and an address founded on it was sent to England. It, discussed at length the various grievances under which the province labored. It pointed out that it was useless to withhold supplies as a means of forcing reform. The large civil list granted in perpetuity some years before (1831), added to the casual and territorial revenues, supplied the executive with all the means necessary to pay the official staff, over which, therefore, the assembly could exercise no control. The composition of the legislative council was also complained of. The prayer of the address was that the legislative council should be made elective ; that municipal government should be established throughout the province ; that the post-office should be surrendered to colonial control ; and that, above all, the executive council should be made responsible to the assembly.

A Favorable Reply. —The reply to this address came in the shape of instructions from the colonial secretary to the new lieutenant-governor, Sir Francis Bond Head. Upon the vital question of executive responsibility there was no concession, but in some other respects the instructions gave satisfaction to the reformers of the province. In the exercise of the patronage of the Crown, natives and residents were to have the preference. Appointments to offices worth over £200 per annum were alone to be reserved for Imperial approval. All useless offices were to be cut off, and the salaries attached to others reduced. While pen-


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