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HISTORY OF CANADA.   219

and a third time he was re-elected, this time by acclamation. Again a new election was ordered and again he was returned by acclamation. Upon presenting himself at the House he was not at first permitted to take the oaths, and was ejected as a stranger by the sergeant-at-arms ; afterwards, although allowed to take the oaths, lie was forcibly ejected in pursuance of a fresh resolution of expulsion.

The Family Compact Protests.—Mackenzie so far succeeded in his mission to England that the colonial secretary, Lord Goderich, sent instructions to the lieutenant-governor (1832) to concede certain of the reforms asked for, and to dismiss the Crown officers (Boulton and Hagerman) for insisting upon the expulsion proceedings after having received official notice that the colonial office did not approve of them. In hot anger the Family Compact threatened that " a new state of political existence " would have to be sought for if Downing Street persisted in interfering with their management of the affairs of the colony. Having the assembly with them, they displayed a zeal for self-government which would have done credit to the most advanced reformer. An Act respecting the Bank of Upper Canada—a thoroughly political machine in which the government and its officials held most of the stock—had been disallowed in England, and the language of the protest against this disallowance is admirable. It indicated the true relation which should exist between Great Britain and her colonies, as recognized at the present time. " We humbly submit," they said, " that no laws ought to be, or rightfully can be, dictated to or imposed upon the people of this province to which they do not freely give their consent through the constitutional medium of representatives chosen by and accountable to themselves." Had the Family Compact been equally anxious to see the will of the assembly carried out when it differed from their own, the struggle for political liberty would never have been necessary.

A Retrograde Movement.—By other methods, of a less open character, the influence which Mackenzie had gained with Lord Goderich was undermined. Lord Stanley, who in 1833 became colonial secretary, restored Hagerman to his position, and appointed Boulton to the chief-justiceship of Newfoundland. Lord Stanley's policy was also in other respects less favorable


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