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218   111STr,lty OF CANADA.

meetings were held throughout Upper Canada, and petitions were. largely signed asking the Imperial authorities to provide a better system of colonial government. Lord Durham afterwards in his celebrated report gave the reform leaders of Upper Canada credit for their appreciation of the true point for attack, namely, the irresponsible executive council. In the petitions now carried to England by William Lyon Mackenzie, the various reforms desired in the province were set forth :—control of all provincial revenues ; reform in the Crown Lands office ; secularization of the Clergy Reserves ; municipal government ; law reform ; and the exclusion of judges, ecclesiastics, and placemen from both branches of parliament. But, as a means to these ends, it was insisted that responsible government should lre established.

Mackenzie Expelled from the Assembly.—During the last parliament the government newspapers had indulged in the most violent attacks upon the assembly. The lieutenant-governor, Sir John Colborne, a staunch supporter of the executive, had publicly acknowledged " with thanks" the receipt of an address from certain "gentlemen of Durham " irr which the reforui majority in that assembly were spoken of as "a band of factious demagogues." Now, in order to get rid of their most formidable opponent in the House, the privileges of the assembly were illegally invoked by the executive party._ Mackenzie had published in his paper two articles criticising the action of the majority of the House. Compared with articles in the government press of that day, or even with articles which now appear daily in our newspapers, Mackenzie's attack was mild. It was, nevertheless, voted a libel upon the House and a breach of privilege, and Mackenzie was expelled from the assembly (December, 1831).

Four Times Re-elected.—York County promptly re-elected hirer and presented hirer with a gold medal. He again took his seat, but soon published another article in general condemnation of the neglect of the assembly to further measures of reform. Thereupon he was again expelled (January, 1832), and declared incapable of sitting in the House. Ile was a second time re-elected, but the session closed before he could take his seat. When parliament next met, Mackenzie was in England. The assembly, nevertheless, declared his seat vacant (November, 1832),


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