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HISTORY OF CANADA.   217

ever, upon the ruling faction. In this assembly William Lyon Mackenzie appears for the first time as a member of parliament, and his energetic probing of abuses soon brought him into prominence. One of the reforms persistently urged by hint was in respect to the postal service. This department was not considered a colonial department at all, but was controlled directly from England. Postage charges were high, as Mackenzie had found in connection with the distribution of his newspaper, and the service was very poor. This assembly, like its predecessor, could effect no legislative reform. It was the exception rather than the rule that a bill passed by it passed also in the legislative council. In 1829 a committee on the state of the province adopted thirty-one resolutions, from which can be gathered what reforms were particularly desired. The Upper Canadian assembly, like that of the lower province, wanted an agent in England. Entire control of the revenue, religious equality, the independence of the judiciary, libel law amendment with a view to stopping the too frequent prosecutions, a check on pension abuses, these were the chief reforms mentioned in the resolutions.

The " Everlasting Salaries Bill."—The death of George IV. having dissolved the House, a new election (1830) resulted in the return of a clear majority favorable to the Family Compact. Among reform leaders Robert Baldwin was beaten in York, and Rolph and Matthews in Middlesex. Mackenzie, however, was re-elected. To this assembly came the offer—of which, as we have seen, Lower Canada failed to take advantage—to surrender to the assembly control over all revenues (except the casual and territorial) in return for a fixed Civil List. Li Lipper Canada the offer was accepted and a permanent Civil List of £6,500 was voted. The increased control thus gained by the assembly does not seen to have been fully appreciated at the time, for the Civil List Act was denounced as the "Everlasting Salaries Bill." An Act which met with a larger measure of popular approval was one providing for the establishment of district agricultural societies, to each of which a grant was promised of £100 for every £50 raised by local subscription.

Petitions to the Reform Ministry in England.—At this time a Reform ministry held power in England, and much was evidently expected of it by colonial reformers. Public


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