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HISTORY OF CANADA.   213

council, persistently rejected useful measures passed by the assembly. A short statement of the bills rejected will serve to show the various measures of reform for which the assembly had contended, thus far unsuccessfully. These were (besides numerous supply bills) bills for education ; for municipal government ; for law reform—particularly as to juries ; for increasing the representation ; for securing the independence of the judges ; for the trial of delinquent officials "so as to insure a just responsibility in high public offices within the province ;" and, lastly, for appointing an agent for the province in London.

A Favorable Report.—The committee, in their report, did not attempt to deal with the merits of the various bills rejected by the legislative council. They struck at once to the root of the matter by earnestly recommending (1) that the second chamber should be reformed and made independent of the executive ; (2) that all the revenues of the province (excepting the casual and territorial) should be placed under the control and direction of the assembly. That body, however, should first vote a permanent Civil List for the governor, the members of the executive council, and the judges, so that these officials should have fixed salaries assigned them, and not be dependent upon annual vu,tes. The action of the executive in spending moneys without legal appropriation was severely criticised.

Attitude of the Assembly.—Upon this report nothing was done by the Imperial parliament, bat the colonial office evidently tried to carry out its spirit. Dalhousie was transferred to India, and Sir James Kempt came from Nova Scotia to take his place. The press prosecutions were stopped. The dismissed militia officers and magistrates were restored to their positions. Papineau's election as speaker was recognized. To crown all, the assembly was informed that control of the revenues would be given them upon the terms mentioned in the report. This last measure of reform could only be effected by an Imperial Act, and, pending such legislation, the Lower Canadian assembly passed an address to the British parliament asking that various other reforms should be granted before they should be called on to vote a permanent Civil List even for the officials mentioned. In the meantime comparative harmony reigned, and many useful laws were passed (1829-1830). The representation in the assembly was increased


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