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their views as to how that supply should be spent were contemptuously ignored. The Duke of Richmond died in 1819. Next year the Earl of Dalhousie came from Nova Scotia to assume the government, holding office until the year 1828. During all this period the financial question was ever to the front. The assembly, indeed, several times refused supplies. In their anxiety to carry their point, they even neglected, at times, their proper legislative functions, and works of public improvement were delayed.

The Union Project of 1822.-Upper Canada was a loser by this strife. She was entitled to a portion of the duties collected upon goods imported into the lower province, many of which were, of course, simply on their way to the upper. The existing agreement was allowed to expire and no new one could be arrived at. The English-speaking minority in Lower Canada were not slow to attribute the troubles of the province to the French-Canadian majority, representing them as hostile to British immigration and British trade. The ruling minority would have been glad to join hands with the English-speaking inhabitants of Upper Canada. To this end a bill for the union of the two provinces was (clandestinely, it is said) introduced into the British House of Commons in 1822. Though rejected in that year it was apparently the intention to re-introduce it in the following session, and there was in consequence great excitement in Lower Canada. Neilson characterized the bill as most unfair in several particulars. On the basis of population Upper Canada was to be given too large a number of members in the union assembly ; the property qualification was too high; and the use of the French language in the proceedings of the assembly was to be abolished. Strange to say, the legislative council by a narrow majority disapproved of the union project. Upper Canada, too, opposed it, and the bill, therefore, was not again introduced.

Financial Legislation in England. —But, although the

Union Bill was dropped, the British parliament came to the rescue of the executive in Lower Canada in a somewhat high-handed way. Several revenue Acts of the provincial assembly, which were about to expire, were continued for five years by an Imperial enactment— the " Canada Trade Act." The result was that the executive of Lower Canada had at their command all the revenues under these provincial Acts in addition to the other

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