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became governor. The elections had resulted in the return of an assembly bent upon attacking official abuses, particularly those connected with the administration of justice. The governor was instructed to dissolve the House again if necessary, but, in preference, to interpose "the firmness and good dispositions of the legislative council." Sherbrooke reported that there was no hope of a change. He urged, therefore, that Chief Justice Sewell should be superannuated; that a colonial agent should be appointed ; and that Papineau should be made a member of the legislative council. This, he said, would gain for that body some measure of public confidence. Sherbrooke's policy of conciliation was not entirely adopted, though the elder Papineau and the Roman Catholic Bishop of Quebec were appointed to the legislative council. Attacks upon the judges still continued, and the governor apparently despaired of reconciling the disputes. At his own request he was recalled (1817), and was succeeded by the Duke of Richmond.

The Civil List. —Meanwhile offices had been multiplied in the province, and the revenues at the sole disposal of the executive were not now sufficient to pay all the officials. When called upon, iu 1819, to make up the deficiency, the assembly insisted upon revising the whole civil list, in order, as they said, to see how it was that a deficiency had arisen. They pruned vigorously, and adopted a "Supply Bill" which, if accepted by the legislative council, would have wiped out several sinecure offices. It would also have reduced the salaries of many other officials. The upper chamber, however, rejected the bill upon a ground which sounds strange to us in these days. The assembly, they said, had no right "to prescribe to the sovereign the number and quality of his servants, and what exact wages he should pay to each."

This financial question was for many years the chief bone of contention in Lower Canada. It was no mere theoretic reform the assembly desired. The more the expenses of the executive staff could bo reduced, the more would there be available for purposes of public improvement. Year after year they attacked the estimates, cutting off here and reducing there, and year after year the legislative council rejected their bills. It would take too long to follow this contest through all its phases. The remedy in the hands of the assembly was to refuse supply altogether when


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