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204   HISTORY OF CANADA.

to put other denominations upon an equality with them was long made fruitless by the negative voice of the second chamber. The assemblies, indeed, were for many years provided by the government with Anglican chaplains. When objection was taken, the service ceased but the salary continued. It was this invidious religious distinction, carried to the extreme of social ostracism, and the denial to " dissenters " of all share in the patronage of the Crown, that gave to the battle for political equality during this period its peculiar bitterness.

Prince Edward Island.—Prince Edward Island appears to have been singularly free from agitation arising out of a claim on the part of any one denomination to monopolize state favor. The Roman Catholics have at all times formed a large element in the population of the island. Up to the year 1820 there was only one Protestant clergyman upon it. Though freedom of con-science was denied to Roman Catholics by the terms of Patter-son's commission, there was apparently no interference with their right to worship God in their own manner. Not, however, until 1830 were those civil disabilities, to which they were subject under the unjust laws of England prior to the Catholic Emancipation Act (1829), entirely removed by the island assembly. In this matter it declined (by the casting vote of the speaker in 1827). to proceed faster than the Mother Country. If any feeling of jealousy was entertained by the various religious denominations on .account of the executive officials being exclusively Anglican, it does not appear in the island records. The land question overshadowed every other grievance. The necessity for combined effort against the influence, so potent in England, of the absentee proprietors would seem to have stilled sectarian strife. As early as 1829, when the "Central Academy " at Charlottetown was established by Act of the island legislature, it was expressly stipulated that no religious tests should be imposed upon either teachers or pupils.

The Clergy Reserves—In Upper Canada the battle for religious equality largely turned upon questions of state endowment—the Clergy Reserves and Rectories questions. By the Constitutional Act of 1791, as already mentioned, provision was made for setting apart a portion—one-seventh—of the Crown lands in each province for the support of a "Protestant clergy."


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