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202   HISTORY OF CANADA.

 

Marriage Laws.—The Act of 1798 passed in Upper Canada iu relief of Presbyterian ministers has been already mentioned. The benefit of the Act was much lessened by the rigorous conditions under which only could a license to perform the marriage ceremony be obtained. It was not until 1831 that an Act was finally passed giving all Christian ministers power to perform the ceremony. Prior to that date marriage fees formed no inconsiderable portion of the income of the Anglican and Presbyterian clergy. An Act empowering religious bodies to hold land soon followed. In Nova Scotia and New Brunswick similar Acts were not obtained until a few years later (1834). In all the provinces the long delay was attributed to the intolerance of the ruling faction.

Sectarian Schools. —Through their influence in England the dignitaries of the Anglican Church in the British provinces in America procured royal charters for sectarian colleges which were liberally endowed with lands and generously supported by parliamentary grants. The first of these was King's College, Windsor, in Nova Scotia. lts charter was, as already mentioned, obtained in 1802, through the exertions of Dr. Charles Inglis, the first bishop of Nova Scotia. The governing trustees were all Anglican, and in spite of the protest of the bishop (in which he was supported by the Archbishop of Canterbury), subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England was made a condition of matriculation. The result of this exclusive policy was a strong popular aversion to the college. All efforts to open its doors failing, other denominational colleges and academies were established. To these, grants were from time to time wade by the provincial assembly. Though religious tests have long since disappeared, the early establishment in Nova Scotia of a number of denominational schools for higher education has so far barred the way to the creation of one central provincial university.

In New Brunswick a royal charter was obtained about the year 1800 for a college at Fredericton which received a liberal endowment. In 1828 it was remodelled under a new charter, becoming "King's College, New Brunswick," with university powers. The same exclusiveness was not shown here as in Nova Scotia. The Anglican bishop was visitor, the president


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