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200   HISTORY OF CANADA.

Matthews, the Reform member for Middlesex. He, in rather hilarious mood, called upon the orchestra to play " Yankee Doodle." He was a half-pay officer in the British army, and, as a result of representations from the York officials, his pension was stopped. To secure its restoration Captain Matthews was obliged to go to England, which, it is said, was what the Family Compact wanted. About the same time Fothergill, king's printer, was dismissed for venturing to criticise the government. The dismissal of Mr. Justice Willes, who in a rather too public way found fault with the Crown officers and belittled his brother judges, was also ascribed to the influence of the ruling faction.

In Lower Canada the same course was adopted, and French-Canadian militia officers were, without previous notice, dismissed from their positions for taking part in the agitation for reform. At the same time the list of magistrates was revised, and all who were friendly to the reform movement were deprived of their commissions.

Friendly Assemblies. —The officials were quick to make use of a friendly assembly to secure the passing of laws to strengthen their authority, knowing well that Acts of this description, once passed, could not be repealed without the concurrence of the legislative council, in which their influence was predominant. Nor did they scruple, as we shall see, to turn to their own advantage the well-known tendency of popular assemblies to insist upon their privileges. This, however, is part of the parliamentary history of this period, which it will be convenient to reserve for a later chapter.

CHAPTER XXXI.

THE STRUGGLE FOR RELIGIOUS LIBERTY.

Church and State.—In the early years of the present century the Anglican Church enjoyed in all the provinces many advantages over other religious denominations. An effort, indeed, was made to secure its recognition as the " Established Church " of the colonies as well as of England, but from the beginning its adherents had been in the minority in the colonies, and the home authorities declined therefore to make it a state church out-


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