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HISTORY OF CANADA.   195

expended. This naturally resulted in patchwork, often unevenly put on ; nevertheless, when, in 1820, Lord Dalhousie urged that some regular system should be adopted and placed under the control of the executive, his suggestion was "coldly received " by the assembly, and no change was made. In Lieutenant-Governor Kempt's time (1828) they so far yielded as to agree to the appointment of permanent commissioners for the main highways.

Municipal Government.—This control over matters which are now left to local municipalities, the Family Compact were very loath to relinquish. Even the larger towns were denied control of their local affairs. St. John, N.B., long remained the only incorporated town in British North America. In Lower Canada the legislative council continually rejected bills passed by the assembly to confer municipal institutions upon the larger towns. Quebec and Montreal were at last incorporated in 1832, with the provision, however, that their local regulations should be submitted to the judges for approval. In Quebec the judges rejected these regulations because they were drawn up in the French language ! In Upper Canada, York was incorporated under its present name, Toronto, in 1834. Though the capital of the province, with a population of several thousand, its government by the executive had not been very satisfactory, for "there was not a sidewalk in the town." Kingston tried in vain to procure an Act of incorporation ; the assembly passed the bill but the legislative council rejected it. It was not until after the advent of responsible government and the union of the two Canadian provinces that a general Act was passed for the establishment of municipalities with large powers of local self-government. In Nova Scotia, Halifax did not succeed in securing incorporation until 1841. As Howe said, "There was not an incorporated city in any part of the province. They were all governed, as Halifax was, by magistrates who held their commissions from the Crown, and were entirely independent of popular control."

Executive Oppression.—The methods employed by the executive to stifle complaint and put down opposition give to this period a somewhat tragic interest. In the Maritime Provinces, however, while there was the same vicious system and the same exclusive spirit as in the Canadian provinces, there was a marked


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