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HISTORY OF CANADA.   193

But the men of the Family Compact had not our experience. They looked rather to the loss of the older American colonies, and many of them honestly thought that the popular leaders here were pursuing the same course as had been pursued there, and that the same results would follow. We repeat, therefore, that while we must condemn many of the public acts of the Family Compact, we must give credit to many of its members for uprightness of life and sincerity of motive.

CHAPTER XXX.

EXECUTIVE ABUSES.

Growing Discontent.—Even before the war of 1812 there had been, as already seen, marked evidences of popular discontent in Lower Canada, where the French-Canadian majority were not disposed to look quietly on and see the whole machinery of government used to further the interests of a small English-speaking official and trading class. In the other provinces there had been only slight symptoms of dissatisfaction before 1812. Shortly after the close of the war, however, when the tide of immigration had well set in, complaint of executive misgovernment became more frequent and outspoken. In this chapter will be described briefly the doings of the Family Compact in all the provinces, both in creating abuses and in repressing those who complained of them.

Official Favoritism.—From the favors shown to the members and friends of the ruling class the greatest abuses arose. Pensions were bestowed with a lavish hand. The construction of public works was made a means of public corruption, and even incorporated banks were used as political machines in the interest of the government. Large grants of land were made to executive favorites in return for public services of the slightest 'charactersometimes even without that pretence—and these tracts * proved, as We have seen, a serious impediment in the way of 'settlers. "Iii the dispe al of timber limits in the lower provinces

In Lord Durham's celebrated report may be found statistics showing the amount of Crown Lands held by members and friends of the provincial governments, and the figures are certainly startling.

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