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Montreal) and Chambly. In 1839 there was another in use in hauling coal from the Albion mines in Nova Scotia to the loading grounds near New Glasgow. Not, however, until 1850 was there any serious attempt at railway construction. Attention was more particularly directed, during the period before us, toward the improvement of the water conuuunication of the St. Lawrence valley ; and the Lachine, Welland, Chambly, and other canals afford striking evidence of the public spirit of the Canadian


people during these years. The Lachine Canal was designed to overcome the rapids immediately above Montreal. It was built (1821-1824) by a private company, but the enterprise was liberally aided by the legislatures of both provinces. The Welland Canal, which owed its inception to the enterprising spirit of William H. Merritt, was built (1825-1829) to connect Lakes Erie and Ontario, between which nature has imposed the barrier of the Niagara Falls. It, too, was largely state-aided, Lower Canada giving generously toward its construction. The Chambly Canal was designed to improve the navigation by way of the Richelieu to Lake Chain-


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