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Ship-building.—But the chief advance was in the lumber trade and its allied industry, ship-building. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia supplied themselves with all the ships necessary for carrying on the fisheries and the coasting trade, and had still much lumber left for export. Quebec, owing to its situation, attained a recognized position as a ship-building centre. Between Quebec and Montreal the first steamboat in British North America—the Accommodation—had begun to ply as early as 1809, and it was not long before there were many steamboats on Canadian waters. The General Smyth made her first trip on the St. John in 1816. The American Eagle plied between St. John and Eastport in 1825. In 1829 a steam ferry was in operation between Halifax and Dartmouth, and in the following year there was a steamboat

running between Pictou and

New Glasgow. The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was the Royal William, built in Quebec (1830-1831)

by a company composed

largely of Halifax and Pictou

merchants. She sailed from ~_ _=

Pictou in August, 1833, and

the passage to London was   TiF " ROYAL WILLIAM." made in twenty-five days.

The first steamship to enter the Pacific Ocean was the Bearer, built in England for the Hudson's Bay Company, and employed for many years in the carrying trade of the Pacific coast. She rounded Cape Horn on her first voyage in 1835. Not until about 1838 was the problem of transatlantic steam navigation practically settled. One of the first to enter systematically upon it was a Nova Scotian, Samuel Cunard. In 1839 he entered into a contract with the British government for the carriage of the mails between England and America by means of a steamship line. The first ship of the line—the Britannia, a paddle-wheel steamer—sailed from Liverpool in July, 1840. Out of this venture has grown the well-known Cunard Line of ocean steamships.

Attention Given to Canals.—The application of steam to land traffic was yet in its infancy. The first locomotive in Canada was used in 1837 on a short tram-line between Laprairie (opposite


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