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182   HISTORY OF CANADA.

The Maritime Provinces.--Of the Maritime Provinces, New Brunswick, sparsely populated and with much fertile land ungranted, received during this period the greatest addition to her population. The year 1819 saw the commencement of the movement thither, and at the port of St. John alone there arrived during the summer of that year over seven thousand souls. Of these about twelve hundred were Scotch and Welsh ; the rest were Irish. The Irish movement, particularly after the cholera visitation, was largely directed to New Brunswick, and between 1834 and 1840 as many as thirty thousand settlers arrived in the province. The Scotch migration to Cape Breton, already mentioned, took place chiefly during this period. With the Irish and Scotch came also many English. Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island also received their share of this large immigration, as we may gather from the statistics of population in those provinces.*

Industrial Advancement.—Despite the political ills of the provinces, there was also a steady advance during this period along the line of material improvement. The log cabins of the early settlers gradually gave place to more commodious dwellings, often of stone or brick. The assemblies were very liberal in grants to aid agriculture, as well as road building and other public works. Communication became easier as the roads improved, and the social life of the people was materially broadened. Individual enterprise was not lacking, and the face of the country underwent a marked change from the days of 1812. Then wheat, potash and fur were the chief Canadian exports, and fishing was still almost the only industry of the Maritime Provinces, though the lumber trade was beginning to show signs of activity. By the year 1840, though wheat was still the chief article of export from Upper Canada, the culture of other grains and of fruit had made marked progress, and there were also a few manufactures. In Lower Canada and the Maritime Provinces agriculture was not neglected, and the fisheries were in more active operation than ever before.

* Between the years 1824 and 1847 the population of New Brunswick was more than doubled, or, as the statistics put it, had increased from nearly 75,000 in the former year to over 150,000 in the latter. Nova Scotia, with a population in 1814 of "not over 100,000" had in 18.27 nearly 144,000, and in 1844 over 250,000, while Prince Edward Island, which at the close of the war of 1812, had probably not over 15,000 inhabitants, had in 1827 over 23,000, in 1833 over 32,000, and in 1848 not less than 02,000.


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