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HISTORY OF CANADA.   179

industries to which war gives rise were left without occupation, and the disbanding of many regiments added to the army of the unemployed. The British government at once adopted a comprehensive scheme of state-aided emigration to relieve the distress. The colonies were the chosen field. A free passage was provided for all persons of good character, to whom settlers' tools were also promised and provisions for their support until the first crop should be reaped. Of the settlers who, under these inducements, came to Canada, a large number were from England. These, as a rule, came singly or in family parties, and spread themselves through the older settlements. The Scotch immigration, on the contrary, partook largely of the character of an organized movement on the part of those who joined in it, as well as on the part of the British government, under whose auspices it was conducted. The same may be said of the Irish immigration which shortly afterward set in.

The Scotch immigration of this period was so largely composed of disbanded soldiers and their families and friends that it was taken in charge by the British Quartermaster's Department, and was known as the military settlement. The district, south of the Ottawa River, in which the main body settled was called the Bathurst District, after the British minister of that name ; and the various townships of the district still bear the names of the chief British officials connected with the movement. A region, of which the town of Perth is about the centre, was occupied by these settlers (to the number of nearly two thousand) as early as 1816. During the following years they were joined by a large number of operatives from the manufacturing towns of Scotland. In one year, 1820, as many as eleven hundred, it is said, arrived in this "Perth settlement," which very soon became a populous and thriving region. The banks of the St. Francis River in the Eastern Townships also received some portion of this Scotch immigration. To this same period belongs the settlement of the clan McNab in the township of McNab on the Ottawa River. Their chief made a vigorous effort to maintain a feudal rule over his clansmen, but the system never took root, and soon all trace of it even in that township died out. During this period, too, the Scotch settlement around Galt, on the Grand River, was begun on land purchased from the Indians.


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