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158   HISTORY OF CANADA.

distinction as "old subjects" and "new subjects" should have been allowed to arise. All, he said, were equally loyal citizens of one common province.

Trade.—The embargo placed upon trade by the United States —one of the events which preceded the war of 1812—gave a great impetus to the trade of the Maritime Provinces and the lower St. Lawrence with England. Prevost reported that in Nova Scotia there was a marked improvement in agriculture and the fisheries ; that much lumber was supplied to England, affording "unquestionable proofs of the prosperity and rapid increase of the province."

Education.—In all the Maritime Provinces the assemblies gave liberally in aid of education, but there was little yet in the way of systematic effort. The missionaries sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel long continued to do good work in their schools. Such other elementary schools as then existed were the result of local or individual enterprise, stimulated by legislative grants. Following upon the establislnnent of the public school at Halifax in 1780, an agitation for a college sprang up, and in 1787 the assembly established a seminary at Windsor, which afterwards (1802) received a charter as a university under the name of King's College, Windsor.

CHAPTER XXVII.

THE WAR OF 1812.

Napoleonic War—" Right of Search."—The war of 1812, as it is popularly called, between Great Britain and the United States was a side wind from the storm of war in Europe. Napoleon was now at the zenith of his career. All Europe, save Great Britain, Russia and Spain, lay prostrate before his victorious armies. The British navy had become the mainstay of European liberty, and Britain neglected no precaution to preserve her supremacy upon the sea. She had long insisted upon what is known as " the right of search," that is, the right to board neutral ships in search of deserters from her navy. There were unhappily many such, for it was the time of press-gangs and harsh discipline. The mercantile marine of the United States had profited largely by these desertions, and for some years American vessels had


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