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HISTORY OF CANADA.   155

patents from the officials at Halifax, a vigorous demand was made for a separate government. This was almost at once granted by the home authorities, and in 1784 a new province was set apart, named, in honor of the royal house, New Brunswick. It included not only the old county of Sunbury, but also the older-settled districts at the head of the Bay of Fundy as far as the isthmus which connects the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Provision was also made for the calling of an assembly, which met for the first time in 1786. The Maritime Province assemblies, it should be noted, were created by royal authority and not by Act of the British parliament as in the two Canadas. They continued in unbroken succession until Confederation.

Thomas Carleton.—The first lieutenant-governor of the new province was Thomas Carleton, a brother of Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester). He arrived at St. John in November, 1784, and at once organized the new government. At the first election all males twenty-one years old and resident three months in the province were allowed to vote, a somewhat radical extension of the franchise for which Carleton was mildly rebuked by the hone authorities. Like his brother in Canada, Thomas Carleton was very popular with all classes, excepting perhaps the officials. During his nineteen years' residence in the province (1784-1803) he did much to help the settlers in the work of improvement. He refused the fees of office to which he was entitled upon the issue of their land patents, and in many ways encouraged them in their tasks. In other respects, too, he was a vigorous administrator. As commander of the forces both in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, during the war with France (1793-1802) he organized "King's regiments" for home service. These were commanded by half-pay officers, and in the ranks were many veterans of the revolutionary war. In March, 1788, Carleton made a trip on snow-shoes to Quebec to visit his brother, Lord Dorchester, who was reported to be ill. Though Carleton and his party passed eight nights in the woods, he refers to the journey as a "pleasant trip." He left New Brunswick in 1803, but retained the lieutenant-governorship until his death in 1817.

The Assembly—Peaceful Progress.—The city of St. John was incorporated in 1785, and the assembly held two sessions there. In 1788 the seat of government was removed to Fred-


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