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HISTORY OF CANADA.   147

those who, upon the faith of it, had begun to clear the land should get their patents. The council in the end managed to have its own way.

Growing Friction.—The dispute between Prescott and his council led to the governor visiting England in 1799 to make explanation. He never returned to Canada, though he continued to hold office until 1807. The lieutenant-governor, Sir R. S. Milnes, seems to have fallen completely into the hands of those who desired to see the French-Canadians excluded from all part in the government of the province. In 1801 an Education Act was passed, apparently with little objection at the moment, which placed the control of public education in the hands of the executive council, which was empowered to create a school board to manage the schools. Though nothing was done under the Act until 1817, its existence on the statute book barred the way to further legislation on the subject of education for many years. The causes of complaint during Milnes' time do not very clearly appear, nor does it appear that the critics of the government were disposed to push their views. The granting of land in large tracts to officials and their friends ; the efforts of these large land-owners and of the traders to have taxes laid upon land in the settled parts in order to escape taxation themselves ; the exclusion of French-Canadians from office—all these are mentioned as causes of growing friction. That the French-Canadians at this time were loyal to Great Britain, and out of all sympathy with the course of events in France, is shown by their enthusiastic celebration of Nelson's victory at Trafalgar (1805). At this period Le Canadien news-paper was established. It was outspoken in its condemnation of the policy of the government in excluding French-Canadians from office. At the same time it dwelt strongly upon the merits of the British constitution, and laid the blame for the state of affairs in the province to the failure of the ruling faction to observe the true spirit of that constitution.

The "Reign of Terror."Among the French-Canadians Governor Craig's rule (1807-1811) is described as the "Reign of Terror." His secretary, Ryland—who had been secretary to each succeeding governor since Lord Dorchester's time—was well known for his antipathy to everything French and Catholic, and Craig's policy may be inferred from the fact that Ryland wrote of him as


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