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140   HISTORY OF CANADA.

 

Vancouver Island, including the inside channels. Mount Baker takes its name from one of his lieutenants, who was the first to

catch a glimpse of its snow-clad summit. Puget Sound was named after another lieutenant who had in charge the survey of its sinuous shores. Nootka was finally handed over to a representative of Great Britain in 1795. No attempt was ever again made to plant a settlement there, though for some time it continued to be a summer rendezvous for the fur traders. .

Samuel Hearne. — Meanwhile the rival companies beyond the Rocky Mountains had been pushing their explorations westward. Samuel Hearne led the way for the Hudson's Bay

Company. From their posts on the great bay he made several trips into the interior, and in the year 1771 finally succeeded in reaching the Arctic Ocean by way of the Coppermine River. Afterwards he led a party up the Saskatchewan, and, in 1774, established a post on that river—Fort Cumberland. He has been called "the Mungo Park of Canada," his extensive explorations rivalling those of the celebrated traveller in Africa. He was followed by many others of the most skilled officers in the company's employ, and, before 1800, posts had been established at various points on the Saskatchewan, from Lake Winnipeg to Fort Edmonton, not far from the Rocky Mountains. There were also posts on Lake Winnipeg, on the Red River, and on its great affluent, the Assiniboine.

The X. Y. Company.—All through this same region the North-West Company had built its posts, the rival establishments often standing side by side or facing each other across some stream. At one time indeed a third competitor appeared in the field. In 1796 there was a division among he Nor'-Westers, and a new North-West Company, commonly called the X. Y. Company, was formed by the outgoing partners. At many points three rival posts took the place of two. In 1804, however, the X. Y. Company was again merged in the old North-West Company.

CAPT. GEO. VANCOUVER.

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