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134   HISTORY OF CANADA.

frontier. Their founder was Colonel Thomas Talbot, who, as nnneue's aide-de-camp, accompanied him upon his western trips in Upper Canada. He afterwards obtained a grant of many townships in the district just mentioned. Active settlement, however, did not begin until 1809, and Colonel Talbot's career in Canada is more closely identified with the period following the war of 1812. Twenty-eight townships in all owe their first settlement to his somewhat eccen5' ie en   .

The Eastern Townships.—We turn now to what may be called the second great migration from the United States to Canada. Very shortly after the division of the old province of Quebec proclamations were issued in both Lower and Upper Canada inciting settlers from the United States to take up their abode in Canada. Those who chose the lower province settled chiefly in what are known as the Eastern Townships. The method pursued by the government of Lower Canada was thus described many years afterwards (1828) by John Neilson, the well-known reformer of that province : "From the year 1790 down to a late period there was a practice of granting an immense tract of land, called a township, to a leader ; that leader gave in a number of names which were put in the patent, and he managed beforehand to get deeds of conveyance from them so that he became possessor of the whole." After the war of 1812, when Sir Gordon Drummond desired to reward those who had taken part in the defence of the province, he found that there were no Crown lands available in this region. Over three million acres were held by "a couple of hundred lucky grantees, "—the leading officials of the province and their friends. For a time this policy to some extent retarded settlement. Not all, however, of the "leaders " were of the character described by Neilson. Many of them were leaders in reality, who brought with them into Canada an industrious and intelligent class of settlers. The first-comers were largely Loyalists ; the subsequent influx was an overflow into Canada from the settlements in northern Vermont and New Hampshire.

Simcoe in Upper Canada.—In Upper Canada this second migration from the United States began during Simcoe's tenure of office (1792-1796). This energetic lieutenant-governor rejoiced to see men forsaking the old colonies and returning to British rule. All that he required was that the new-comers could show that


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