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132   HISTORY OF CANADA.

into sheep-runs. The misery which followed upon these "High-land clearances " was extreme. With a view to relief, colonization projects were adopted toward the close of the century, which resulted in the migration of thousands of Highlanders to the British provinces in America.

Scotch Migration to Nova Scotia.—Their first settlements in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, as early as 1773, have already been mentioned. Further arrivals took place, spreading eastward toward and into Cape Breton. During the earlier years of the present century the migration into these regions was enormous. As many as two or three ships a day sailed from Scotland during the summer season from 1801 to 1805. In one year not less than 1,300 settled in the county of Pictou alone. There was so much suffering and discomfort on board the badly-ventilated ships that the movement gained the unenviable name of the "white slave trade." Once settled, however, in their new homes, these Scotch immigrants entered upon an era of comfort and even prosperity, very different from the distress then prevalent in their old homes in the Highland glens. As early as 1791 the movement into Cape Breton began, first from Nova Scotia, afterwards directly from Scot-land. Between the years 1791 and 1828, not less than twenty-five thousand Scotch settlers found their way to this beautiful island, where their descendants still form the chief element in the population.

Scotch Settlers on the St. Lawrence.—The shore of the upper St. Lawrence was another great gathering-place for Scotch settlers. After the disbanding of the Glengarry Fencibles, who had taken part in putting down the rebellion in Ireland (1798), as many as 1,100 of their, including friends and kinsmen, carne at one time (1804) to the St. Lawrence townships. They were largely Roman Catholic, and their leader, Alexander Macdonell, was afterwards well known as the first Roman Catholic bishop of Upper Canada.

Selkirk's Prince Edward Island Colony.—The place of honor among those who took the lead in bringing out the Scotch Highlanders must be given to the Earl of Selkirk. The character of this nobleman has been the subject of much question. In connection with his Red River settlement he came into conflict with the North-West Company, at that time a most potent factor


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