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HISTORY OF CANADA.   131

take place was well understood. Lower Canada stood fast by the old laws. Upper Canada, as we shall see, at once introduced English law as the basis of the legal system of that province.

CHAPTER XXII.

INCREASE OF POPULATION (1791-1812).

The Various Migrations.—During this period there was a marked increase in the population of all the provinces, and just at its close (1812) the foundations of the present province of Manitoba were laid. Of this increase a few came from England and a large number from Ireland, but the great sources of supply during these years were the United States and Scotland. An attempt, indeed, was made early in the century to settle about five hundred Maroons—a race of rebellious blacks from Jamaica—in Nova Scotia ; but, after a short stay, they were removed to the west coast of Africa, to which region, at an earlier date, a number of negro Loyalists had been sent. After the first great Loyalist migration there was a decided falling off in the movement from the United States to the Maritime Provinces, and it was toward the Canadian provinces that the tide of American migration set in most strongly. Of the flow from the British Isles all the provinces received some portion, but the provinces by the sea were the chief gainers from this source during the period before us.

" Highland Clearances."—To deal first with the Scotch migration. The latter half of the eighteenth century, following upon the failure of the Stuart uprising of 1745, saw the breaking up of the half-feudal clan system of the Highlands of Scotland. A powerful factor to this end was the formation by Pitt of those Highland regiments whose achievements, from the Plains of Abraham to the fields of the Crimea, have shed lustre upon the British army. But the severest blow to the system was given by its own chiefs, who, upon taking the oath of allegiance to the British Crown, were now given an absolute title to the soil occupied by their clans. Many of them soon began a wholesale eviction of their clansmen, whom they now treated simply as their tenants, and vast stretches of the Highlands of Scotland were thus turned


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