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HISTORY OF CANADA.   127

becoming skilled in their tasks, fought their way through much discouragement to comfort and even affluence. One evil they were spared : no hostile red man lurked on the outskirts of settlement. The worst enemy they had to dread was a prowling bear, wolf or wildcat, but these have long since disappeared to northern wilds.

Indian Settlements in Canada.—Many of the Six Nation Indians of northern New York who had taken sides for England

were also settled in Upper Canada. The Mohawk chief Joseph Brant, or Thayendanegea (to give him his Indian name), had distinguished him-self in the war. He now secured blocks of land for his tribesmen, one upon the Grand River on the north shore of Lake Erie, another near Deseronto on the Bay of Quinte. Though large portions of these grants have since been sold or surrendered by the Indians, there are still large Indian reserves in these two localities, where the descendants of the once powerful and ferocious Iroquois now live, largely upon the bounty of the Canadian government.

Upper Canada before the Division.—The first influx of 1784 was followed for several years by a gradually decreasing stream of Loyalists, who took up the townships adjoining those already settled. The desire of these English-speaking settlers for English law had a potent influence in bringing about in 1791 the division of the province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada. Before the Act of 1791 the newly settled region was divided into four districts—Eastern or Lunenburg (the St. Lawrence settlements), Midland or Mecklenburg (the Bay of Quinte region), Nassau or Home (the Niagara frontier), and Western or Hesse (the' Amherstburg district)—with a judge and a sheriff for each. As a first step toward the education of the rising generation Dr. Stewart opened an academy at Kingston (1786), and here and

JOSEPH BRANT.

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