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126   HISTORY OF CANADA.

rence and the Bay of Quinte, were named after the numerous progeny of George III.—Williamsburg, Elizabethtown, Ernestown, Sophiasburg, etc.—although long known to the settlers by their numbers only. The Niagara district was largely settled by Butler's Rangers ; and at Amherstburg, on the Detroit River, there was another settlement in this same year (1784), some of Butler's Rangers going there.

Liberal Treatment.—To these first settlers, both in Canada and in the Maritime Provinces, liberal grants of land were made. In Canada officers received from five thousand to two thousand acres according to rank, while every private was given two hundred acres. At a later date a free grant of two hundred acres was also bestowed on children of U. E. Loyalists, to a daughter upon marriage, to a son on coming of age. The grants in the Maritime Provinces were on a smaller but still liberal scale. In addition to free land the first settlers were provided with tools (not always of the best), and with clothes, grain, and provisions for three years. The British parliament voted a large sum (over three million pounds sterling) to pay the losses sustained by the Loyalists during the war, and the distribution of this fund and the half-pay of the officers provided the settlements with a little ready money—a much-needed article in those days. Among soldier settlers unused to the work which now fell to their lot there was naturally much improvidence, and the year in which the government supplies were stopped (1788) was long known as "the scarce year." Speculators, too, taking advantage of the needs of the earlier settlers, secured much land at low figures.

Life of the Early Settlers. When the various companies arrived at their respective townships they found them a primeval forest. Many pictures have been drawn of the lives of these early settlers,—of the slow clearing away of the woods around the log cabins ; of gradually increasing crops ; of long trips to the government mills ; of home grinding of grain upon the " hominy block " and in the " plumping mill " to save these long trips ; of " bees " for house and barn raising ; of corn huskings followed by merry dancing ; of "sugaring off" in the maple woods ; of abundant game; of the cultivation of flax and the rearing of sheep to provide home-made clothing ; of how every man was his own tanner and boot-maker ; and—to sum up the story—of how the hardy settlers,


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