lands of those proprietors who had not paid their quit-rents, and at these sales he was himself a large purchaser. Popular opinion on the island was strongly against Patterson, although he had the support of the Loyalist settlers, to whom free grants were made out of the forfeited lands. In the end the sales were not disturbed, but the influence of the proprietors in England was sufficiently strong to procure the governor's peremptory recall in 1787.
In Canada.—At the peace the various provincial corps were disbanded, and from all parts of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania they now came flocking into Canada to join their friends already there. Fixed places of rendezvous were appointed—Isle aux Noix, Carleton Island (near Kingston), Oswego, and Niagara—and by various routes the refugees arrived at these different points. One party from New York under Captain Grass came to Canada by way of the St. Lawrence, and after wintering at Sorel joined the settlers for the Bay of Quinte. Haldimand, apparently, was averse to settling the frontier toward Lake Champlain, fearing strife between the soldier settlers and their neighbors across the line. The majority of the Loyalists gathered along the Richelieu valley were therefore sent up the St. Lawrence (1784) to people its northern banks. St. John's, Chambly, Sorel, and the other villages along the Richelieu retained, however, many of the Loyalists, and Montreal doubtless drew many thither.
The Pioneers of Upper Canada.—The first settlement of Upper Canada was largely military. The townships on the St. Lawrence, from Lake St. Francis westward, were settled by soldiers from Sir John Johnson's regiments, many of whom were from the Scotch settlements on the Mohawk. Many of their kinsmen from the Old Land afterwards joined them in this new home in the St. Lawrence valley, and to this day the population of the district is largely Scotch. From Kingston westward for some distance along both sides of the Bay of Quinte the region was taken up by others of Johnson's soldiers, and by other companies, including some Hessian regulars. In these Quinte settlements there was a large admixture of the old Dutch families from the .banks of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, and not a few of the same stock settled on the Niagara frontier. Captain Grass' company secured township number one, afterwards Kingston township, including the town site of Kingston. The other townships, both along the St. Law-