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much suffering on account of the insufficient preparation for their accommodation. All told, the innnigration during these years into the Maritime Provinces amounted to about thirty thousand. Of these the majority were located in what is now Nova Scotia, filling up the already settled townships and spreading into the adjoining wilderness. The population was about doubled by this loyal addition.

In New Brunswick.—Very many, however, went to the northern shores of the Bay of Fundy--to the fertile valley of the St. John, and to the region around Passamaquoddy Bay. The new settlers in the St. John valley—largely disbanded soldiers of the various "provincial corps "—to the number of about nine thousand, were given lands along both banks of the river to a point above the present capital, Fredericton, then known as St. Ann's Point. Parrtown (now St. John), at the mouth of the river, soon became a thriving town. Around Passamaquoddy Bay some seven-teen hundred were located, while about four hundred took up their abode in the townships at the head of the Bay of Fundy. As the result of this large immigration the country north of the isthmus was, in 1784, set apart as a separate province under its present name, New Brunswick.

In Cape Breton.—Cape Breton, too, was made a separate province in 1784, to be governed by a council only ; but in 1820 it was reannexed to Nova Scotia, of which it has ever since formed part. This island was long a victim of the commercial policy of Great Britain. In order to prevent the establishment in America of manufactures which might compete with those of England, the working of the Cape Breton coal deposits was forbidden. For the same reason, even when the great Loyalist immigration came settlers were not allowed at first to locate on the island, but this restriction was almost at once abandoned, and many hundreds of Loyalists did in fact settle in Cape Breton.

In Prince Edward Island. —Owing to the failure of the proprietors to bring in settlers, the population of Prince Edward Island remained almost stationary until the arrival of several hundred Loyalists in 1783-1784. The governor, Patterson, acted treacherously (it was said) toward his fellow-proprietors, both those on the island and those in England. He caused proceedings to be taken under an early Act of the assembly for the sale of the

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