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HISTORY OF CANADA.   123

short-sighted policy then pursued by the United States was that in the British provinces to the north there settled a host of refugees, in whose breasts for many years dwelt the remembrance of wrong. After the first tide of immigration had somewhat abated, the claims of the later-comers to the generous land grants .,eswwed upon those who had upheld the cause of a united empire were more closely scr'+inized. Those who could establish their right to be so classed had placed after their names the magic letters "U.E." Hence the short title by which these settlers and their children are still known—the U. E. Loyalists.

Earlier Arrivals.—When Boston was abandoned by the British troops in 1776, about eleven hundred refugees embarked with the army for Halifax. Many of these settled in Nova Scotia. Loyalist refugees also began to arrive in the province of Quebec at a very early period in the war. The disastrous termination of Burgoyne's campaign (1777) left the Loyalists of the upper Hudson and Mohawk valleys to the tender mercies of the Congress troops, and many of these Loyalists, particularly those who had borne arms, were obliged to seek refuge in Canada. From them were recruited the various "provincial corps" (as the loyal regiments raised in the colonies were styled), while those who were unfit for service—men, women and children--were cared for by the British government at St. John's, Chambly, and other points along the Richelieu. Before the close of the war there were in the province about three thousand of these " unincorporated Loyalists," so called to distinguish them from those who were enrolled in the various provincial corps. Haldimand made preparation for the newcomers by having surveys made of the various districts in which it was intended they should locate. In anticipation of their wants a government mill was erected at Cataraquithe old Fort Frontenac, the modern Kingston.

Loyalist Settlers in Nova Scotia.—After peace had been declared there came a great influx of Loyalists. The city of New York had remained in the hands of the British from a very early period in the struggle, and at its close many thousands of Loyalist refugees were congregated there. Most of these came to the then province of Nova Scotia. In September, 1783, Lieutenant-Governor Parr reported that thirteen thousand refugees had arrived in the province " during the last few months," and that there had been


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