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time, hoped to achieve their end by constitutional means. Now they were obliged either to forswear their allegiance to the mother-land and take up arms against her, or be declared enemies of the new republic. There could be no neutrals. Believing that under the British constitution the grievances of the colonists could, sooner or later, be removed, thousands of loyal men decided to stand by that constitution and the cause of a united empire. Hence to this clay they bear the name of United Empire Loyalists.

A Bitter War. —Obliged to abandon their homes, their property confiscated and sold, little wonder their hearts grew bitter. It can serve no good purpose now to dwell upon the details of the war—the fiendish outrages committed upon both sides —with a view to striking a balance against either king or congress. Civil war at the best is proverbially bitter. It was the more so in this case because the differences of opinion nermeated each separate community, dividing people of the same neighborhood into hostile camps, and thus giving rise to guerilla warfare from one end of the country to the other.

The Victors Act Harshly.—At the close of the war, there was on the part of Great Britain—at least, of her plenipotentiaries—a lamentable failure to secure protection for those colonists who had fought on the losing side. On the part of the successful United States, there was an utter absence of generosity to their vanquished opponents. By the treaty of peace, indeed, Congress engaged to recommend to the State legislatures that the property of all British subjects who had not borne arms against Congress should be freely restored, and that all others should receive back their estates on payment of the price for which they had been sold. This article of the treaty was prac4ically a dead letter. Those who had cheaply purchased the property of Loyalists were not inclined to give it up, and the State legislatures declined to repeal their various confiscation Acts. There seems, in short, to have been an angry determination everywhere to prevent those who had opposed the setting up of an independent national existence from now becoming citizens of the new republic.

Loyalists Emigrate to Canada.—Unable to recover their property, themselves the object of insult and suspicion, the Loyalists soon found that the prospect of making a livelihood in the vicinity of their old homes was not bright. The result, therefore, of the

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