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120   HISTORY OF CANADA.

turned to the province to assume for a second time the position of governor. He was sent again to Canada because there seemed to be danger of trouble with the United States, and because his well-known popularity among the French-Canadians was relied upon to keep them iii content. He was now Lord Dorchester, and his commission appointed him governor of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, as well as of Canada, the government of those provinces being henceforward administered by lieutenant-governors,

Committees of Inquiry. -- In view of the divergence of opinion in Canada, Lord Dorchester was instructed to report fully on the state of the province, and to that end committees of inquiry were appointed. From their proceedings we learn. a great deal that is of interest concerning the position of affairs in the years immediately preceding the division of Canada into two provinces. For example, it appeared that some of the English-speaking judges interpreted the Quebec Act as restoring the-old laws of Canada only as between French-Canadians, leaving English law in force as to the English-speaking population. What law should govern in case of a dispute between an English-Canadian and a French-Canadian depended largely upon the views. of the particular judge who tried the case. On the other hand, some of the French-Canadian judges were inclined to limit unduly the ordinance which had introduced English commercial law. There was, in consequence, much uncertainty in the administration of justice, to say nothing of personal ill-feeling between the judges.

Land Laws.—The Committee on Lands advocated the abolition of the seigneurial tenure and the introduction of English real estate law. In this they were supported by one seigneur, de Lanaudiere, who was wise enough to' see that feudal burdens would retard settlement in the seigneuries. Under the Quebec Act provision had been made for the granting of lands "in free and common socage "—in other words, according to the English system—to those who preferred that system, and to such lands the old French laws were not to apply. But there was much difference of opinion as to the meaning of the Quebec Act upon this point. Not until a later period, however, when what are known as the Eastern Townships of Lower Canada were being settled, did this uncertainty give rise to serious difficulty.

Education.—The Committee on Education reported in favor


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