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HISTORY OF CANADA.   119

more attention, and a movement for a further change in the constitution soon sprang up. Petitions began to cross the Atlantic, some for and some against such change, and some for and some against the continuance of the old French laws. Opinion in the province was much divided. The members of the council were naturally averse to any change by which they would lose their positions. The officials were of the same mind ; in fact, the most influential of them wore members of the council. The French-Canadian population had hitherto been opposed to an assembly, while the small English-speaking minority had vehemently desired one. As the agitation went on there was much I.aliguig of sides upon the question. The various sections of the population were influenced not only by local causes but by the varying reports which from time to time reached Canada from England as to the nature of the assembly to be set up in the province. Before Haldimand's departure (1785) the council passed a resolution against any change in the constitution. Several of the British members supported it because, it is said, they feared that English-speaking candidates would not be able to secure election to an assembly. They evidently realized that the British parliament, even of that day, would not create in Canada an assembly to which French-Canadians could not be elected.

New Settlers Favor the Movement—During Haldimand's governorship a large addition was made to the English-speaking population of Canada by the influx of Loyalists from the revolted colonies to the south. The new settlers were in favor of a more popular form of government than that afforded by a Crown-appointed council. They desired, too, to have English law, under which they had always lived, introduced into those parts of Canada where they settled. It was with the intention of granting them this boon that Upper Canada was finally set apart as a separate province. To render the Loyalist settlements more easy of access Haldimand interested himself in the improvement of the navigation of the St. Lawrence above Montreal, and rude canals were constructed to overcome the rapids.

Lord Dorchester.—In the autumn of 1786* Carleton re-

On Haldimand's retirement in 1785 the government was administered for a time by Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton, and, upon his recall, by Lieutenant-Governor Colonel Hope.


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