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IIIS'TORY OF CANADA.   117

running due north to the " highlands" which divide the streams flowing into the St. Lawrence fronn those flowing south to the Atlantic Ocean. From this point the southern boundary line of the province of Quebec (as laid down by the Quebec Act) was followed until Lake Erie was reached. Here was the most marked change. Under the Quebec Act, all the region north of the Ohio and west to the Mississippi had been part of the province of Quebec. This region was now transferred to the United States, although it had first been opened up by the hardy Canadian voyageurs and eoureurs de bois. The Treaty of Versailles fixed as the south-western boundary of Canada the middle line of the great lakes from Lake Erie to the north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods.

CHAPTER XIX.

CANADA UNDER THE QUEBEC ACT.

Reorganization.—Owing to the invasion of the province, it was not until the spring of 1777 that the new council was able to proceed to the re,,ilar despatch of business. Courts were established upon a system much like that then in force in England. The trade of the province being largely in British hands, English commor-ial law was introduced. In other respects the provision made by the Quebec Act for restoring the old French laws was not disturbed. It has been truly said of this first council that it was composed of officials. seigneurs, and the leading traders, and that the interests of other classes of the population were ignored. No serious complaint, however, was made on this point during the remainder of Carleton's first term. His trouble was with the new chief justice, Livius, who, with little regard for the difficulties of Carleton's position at a time when friends of Congress were numerous in the province, questioned the governor's right to imprison persons suspected of treasonable designs.

Absentee Office-holders.--As the Quebec Act annulled all the old commissions, and all offices therefore had to be refilled, Carleton had hoped that absentee office-holders would disappear. There had been many such, the work of whose offices in Canada was done by incompetent deputies. To Carleton's disgust, Lord


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