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116   HISTORY OF CANADA.

 

arrived from Massachusetts asking the Nova Scotia assembly to join in demanding a redress of grievances, Lieutenant-Governor Francklin did not deem it expedient to lay the circular before the assembly. Instead, he sent it to England with the most loyal professions on behalf of the colonists. The early settlers around Halifax were British soldiers, who remembered their generous treatment by the government upon their first arrival. The city then, as now, was a chief military and naval centre, and the people apparently were not disposed to trouble their heads about strict rights in the matter of taxation. The progress of the struggle was doubtless eagerly watched, for British men-of-war were often in Halifax harbor and along the coast.

Buccaneers.—American privateers (many without any license from Congress) infested the Bay of Fundy. Many of the settlers at Passamaquoddy and along the St. John, who stood firm to their allegiance, were in consequence plundered and kept in a state of constant alarm. At one time the raids became so frequent that the settlers were obliged to seek refuge in the backwoods. In 1776 two American armed vessels landed at Charlottetown (P.E.I.), and carried off, along with other booty, the acting administrator and some other officials, who, however, were at once sent back by Washington with an apology for their capture. Early in the war, Fort Frederick, at the mouth of the St. John, was taken and destroyed by a raiding party from New England ports. Some of this party crossed the isthmus and carried off a vessel from Pictou. The settlements on the gulf shore of what is now New Brunswick suffered also from similar raids. The arrival of a British fleet to patrol the coast prevented any extensive repetition of such attacks until the war was nearly over, when (1782) Lunenburg was attacked and plundered by New England privateers.

Independence Acknowledged—The Boundary Line. —In 1783 Great Britain gave up the contest, and by the second Treaty of Paris, commonly called the Treaty of Versailles, acknowledged the independence of the "United States of America." This treaty made certain changes in the southern boundary line of the province of Quebec, which may be shortly stated. The boundary between the United States and what is now New Brunswick was fixed as the River St. Croix to its source ; thence it followed a line


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