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force had then invaded the province the French-speaking inhabitants would not have opposed them. But no invasion took place. Congress had no desire to see France gain a fresh foothold on the American continent, and therefore employed d'Estaing elsewhere.

Haldimand's Precautions.—The fear of invasion, however, led Haldimand, who had become governor of Quebec in 1778, to adopt measures for repressing disaffection which had been complained of as arbitrary, though even his critics admit his sincerity of purpose. To guard against attack he constructed a block-house on the upper waters of the Chaudiere, by which stream Arnold had descended upon Quebec ; he also established a post at St. Francis and strengthened the forts on the Richelieu. The settlements along Lake Champlain as far as Ticonderoga were raided and destroyed in order that they might not serve as a base of supply for the enemy in case of invasion.

The War in the West.—To the west, British garrisons were maintained at Oswego, Niagara, Detroit and Michillimackinac during the war, but these appear to have been much neglected. To the south and west of Lake Erie a noted Kentucky ranger, named Clark, took possession for Congress of the Illinois settlements. He also captured the post at Vincennes on the Wabash. To secure Niagara from attack, as well as in reprisal for outrages committed upon Loyalists in western New York, Major Butler in 1778 attacked the settlements on the Wyoming, and, after defeating a force which opposed him, laid waste the entire valley. This has been called by American writers " the massacre of Wyoming," but Loyalist writers emphatically assert that none but armed men were slain. At this time the Iroquois or Six Nation Indians, as they were now called (the Tuscaroras having joined them), were living in much comfort in western New York. These tribes, largely through Johnson's influence, had sided with Great Britain in her struggle with the colonies, and some of them had taken part iii Butler's raid on the Wyoming valley. In 1779 General Sullivan marched against them and left their country a blackened wilderness.

The War in the East.—In Nova Scotia there was no movement in opposition to the Stamp Act or to the other measures which caused the revolt of the older colonies. When a circular

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