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114   HISTORY OF CANADA.

before Carleton was feady to advance. Then with his three larger vessels and a medley of small craft, eighty-seven in all, he embarked upon Lake Champlain. There he found that the enemy meanwhile had not been idle ; Arnold was in command of a fleet as strong as his own. No such marine forces had ever before been seen on those waters. On the 11th of October Carleton encountered Arnold's fleet on the west side of the lake. Shutting it in between Valcour Island and the mainland, he so battered it that when night came Arnold was glad to steal past him in the darkness and sail for Crown Point. Carleton overtook him next day, before he could get under cover of the guns of that fortress, and completely destroyed his fleet. Crown Point was abandoned by the Congress troops and the British took possession. It was too late now, however, to advance farther, and Carleton, deeming Crown Point too far away from his base of supply, returned to St. John's.

Burgoyne Surrenders at Saratoga.—Though the province was not again invaded, some of the events of the war to the south had their effect upon Canada, and it will be convenient to deal with these before turning again to the internal affairs of the province. In the spring of 1777, Carleton, much to his disappointment, was superseded in the command of the troops by Burgoyne, who had been his second in command during the year just past. Nevertheless he exerted himself to the utmost to forward the expedition which Burgoyne was to lead against New York. Burgoyne proved himself utterly incompetent. By October he was only a short distance down the Hudson ; and at Saratoga he allowed himself to be hemmed in by General Gates and was obliged to surrender with his entire army.

France Aids the Revolted Colonies.—After this disaster France recognized the United States by secretly making a treaty with Congress. Great Britain, learning of it in March, 1778, promptly declared war. Baron d'Estaing sailed with a French fleet to aid the revolted colonies. He issued a proclamation to the French-Canadians calling on them to put themselves once more under the protection of the French king. There was much excitement in Canada when copies of this proclamation were found affixed to the doors of the parish churches throughout the land. Some writers have even affirmed that if a French


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