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HISTORY OF CANADA.   109

promptly offered to enrol volunteers ; the Roman Catholic bishop published a pastoral address in favor of British rule ; Carleton issued an order calling out the militia, and a force was soon collected.

Meanwhile an emissary from Congress had come to Montreal. The seizure of Ticonderoga, Crown Point and St. John's by the Green Mountain boys was repudiated, and peace toward Canada was proclaimed as the policy of Congress. Tranquillity being thus restored, Carleton returned to Quebec, where he formed the first legislative council under the Quebec Act. Among its members were many well-known men of the Canadian noblesse. They were all deep in the discussion of the means to be adopted for carrying out the Quebec Act when news came that the troops of Congress had again invaded the province. Carleton at once hastened back to Montreal.

Canada Invaded.—Congress had indeed hesitated to engage in aggressive war. The great majority still hoped for a peaceful solution of the difficulties with the motherland; but, after the battle of Bunker's Hill (June, 1775), it was decided to attack Canada. In September. Montgomery, who led the expedition, laid siege to St. John's, where Major Preston was now in command of nearly seven hundred men, many of them Canadian volunteers from Montreal. For nearly seven weeks Preston kept Montgomery out of St. John's. Carleton was unable to send him succor, as the Congress troops had control of the south shore of the St. Lawrence and drove him back when he made an attempt to cross from Montreal. Carleton also tried to send Preston help from Quebec, but, as the habitants of the south shore refused to supply provisions, the detachment turned back.

Allan Attacks Montreal.—Ethan Allan with 150 men rashly attempted, toward the end of September, to take Mont-real, then a place of over twelve thousand inhabitants. Most of the regular troops had been withdrawn to garrison St. John's. Allan took possession of some houses on the outskirts, but was dislodged by Major Carden, who attacked him with a force of 280 men, of whom only thirty were regulars, the rest being Montreal volunteers. After five of his men had been killed and many others wounded, Allan surrendered. He was put in irons and sent to England, Carleton declining to treat him otherwise than as a rebel.


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