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for many years no settlement whatever. As late as 1787 there was but one settler on the Nova Scotian side of the Gut of Canso, and none on the Cape Breton side.

The Early British Settlers of New Brunswick.—Of the fourteen townships taken up by the settlers from New England, five were situated within what is now New Brunswick—four around the head of Chignecto Bay, the fifth on the St. John River. By the census of 1767 it appears that these five townships had a population of eleven hundred souls, chiefly " Americans " from Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. The last-named colony, through the agency of Alexander McNutt, also furnished a number of Germans, who settled (1765) along the banks of the Petitcodiac River. During these same years small settlements were begun around Passamaquoddy Bay, at Bathurst on the Bay of Chaleur, and at Miramichi on the bay of that name. By the year 1783 the population of what is now New Brunswick had reached a total of about two thousand.* Settlement along the St. John Rivert was somewhat retarded. Large grants of land there were made to military officers, who made no effort to bring in settlers as their patents required. For this reason these grants, fortunately, were afterwards forfeited and the lands given to the Loyalists from the revolted colonies, who, after 1783, settled in large numbers along the river.

Representation in the Assembly.—The settlers who came in response to Lawrence's proclamation had been promised that when their numbers warranted it they should have members of their own in the provincial assembly. Accordingly, when in 1760 the death of George II. dissolved the first assembly, the representation was at once readjusted to carry out this promise. Instead of sixteen of the members being chosen, as formerly, by the province at large, two members were elected in each of the newly

* Of these about nine hundred were settled along the St. John, an equal number occupied the townships around Chignecto Bay, and the remaining two hundred made up the other settlements, which were largely mere fishing stations and posts for the Indian trade. When the American revolution broke out, some of the settlers from New England returned to their old homes, but the loss was made good by an influx of settlers from Yorkshire.

{ The township there, above mentioned, was secured for the earlier settlers by the efforts of Joshua Mauger, M.P., a former Halifax merchant who had become a member of the British parliament; hence its name, Maugerville.

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