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Sir Guy Carleton. —Murray's policy in Canada was continued by his successor. Carleton found the province much divided upon the question of calling an assembly, and as to what law, French or English, should govern the judges in their decisions. He soon ranged himself on the side of the French-Canadian majority. He saw that their exclusion from all employment under the British government tended to perpetuate a feeling of

alienation, and that the ad-ministration of justice was being made an instrument of oppression by fee-paid officials. He saw, too, that the English-speaking minority were anxious for an assembly in order to prevent his interference with their exclusive privileges rather than to improve the constitution. He experienced the same difficulty as had Murray before him in inducing the council to do justice to the French-Canadians. As an instance of his own desire to prevent

wrong being done them, the matter of " card money " may be mentioned. This had been issued in large quantities by the intendant Bigot in payment for supplies furnished by the habitants during the last years of New France. It appeared likely, at one time, that this "card money" would be redeemed by the French government. Carleton thereupon issued a proclamation warning the habitants against speculators who were trying to buy it up at low figures.

State of the Province. —In a report which he sent to England, in 1769, Carleton gives a statement of the industrial condition of the province. Much flax was grown and worked into coarse linen for home wear ; mixed with wool it produced the rough cloth known as linsey-woolsey. One-third of the population were clothed with goods of home manufacture. Caps, it seems, were imported. Everything else could be obtained in the pro-




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