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HISTORY OF CANADA.   97

debarring them from all share in the administration of public affairs. The officials engaged in the administration of justice were paid by fees, and magistrates and bailiffs were in league, not only to stir up law suits, but also to make them as expensive and tedious as possible. The sympathies of Murray and Carleton were all with the "new subjects," whom they describe as frugal, industrious and moral, and well disposed toward their new rulers. Murray, though warm in upholding the French-Canadians against oppression, was at the same time anxious to cut them off from all connection with France. The navigation laws, which restricted all colonial commerce to British ships, were strictly enforced, and a smuggling trade, which the fishermen of St. Pierre and Miquelon tried to carry on with their compatriots of the St. Lawrence, was rigorously put down.

Energy of the "Old Subjects."—Doubtless there were some good citizens among the new-corners. To them at all events the province was indebted for its first printing press,* from which issued the Quebec Gazette, a semi-official organ which strongly supported the claim of the English-speaking minority to rule the province by means of a Protestant assembly. The " old subjects " from New England and New York soon secured by their energy the control of provincial commerce. They opened up again the fur trade of the west, which had died out during the war. They began, also, a commercial intercourse with England, securing in this way through London merchants an influence in the British parliament. Montreal was the chief commercial centre, and here lived most of the traders who had come from the neighboring provinces.

Close of Murray's Term.—A petition for Murray's recall was very soon sent to England by the English-speaking minority, the chief cause of complaint being that he had failed to call an assembly. To meet the charges made against him Murray left for England in June, 1766, and he did not again return to the province. He retained the governorship until 1768, when Sir Guy Carleton, who in the meantime had been acting as lieutenant-governor, succeeded him.

*The Halifax Gazette was the earliest Canadian newspaper. Its first issue was in 1762, and it has been continuously published since ; now as the Royal Gazette. In 1769 the Nova Scotia Chronicle and Weekly Advertiser was started at Halifax, and in 1781 the Halifax Journal was first issued by John Howe, father of Hon. Joseph Howe.

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