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94   HISTORY OF CANADA.

for a time from the Illinois country, but in 1765 Pontiac entered into a formal treaty of peace. A few years later he was killed (some say treacherously) in an obscure quarrel on the banks of the Mississippi.

CHAPTER XV.

GOVERNMENT UNDER THE KING'S PROCLAMATION.

The Treaty of Paris, 1763. —By the Treaty of Paris France gave up to Great Britain all claim to Nova Scotia or Acadia " in all its parts," and also ceded " Canada with all its dependencies, the Island of Cape Breton, and all the other islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence." The little islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, lying to the south of Newfoundland, were ceded to France "to serve as a shelter to the French fishermen." The French king engaged not to fortify the islands, to erect no buildings upon them except for the convenience of the fishery, and to keep a guard there of fifty men only for police protection. These two islands were all that now remained to France of her once vast North American possessions ; all else east of the Mississippi became British territory. Louisiana was ceded to the Spanish king, who thus became lord of all the known country west of the Mississippi, and claimed as well the unknown regions through to the Pacific. Louisiana now forms part of the United States. France still retains St. Pierre and Miquelon, and zealously upholds the French fishermen in their rights upon the Newfoundland coast. In ceding Canada the French king stipulated that the inhabitants should he granted the liberty of the Catholic religion, the British king promising on his part that his new Catholic subjects might profess the worship of their religion according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church as far as the laws of Great Britain permit.

The Province of Quebec.—By proclamation dated 7th October, 1763, four new governments were established by Great Britain in America—Quebec, East Florida, West Florida, and Grenada. General James Murray was appointed governor-in-chief over the new province of Quebec. The limits of the province, as fixed by the king's proclamation, were very indefinite. The western boundary was given as a line drawn from Lake Nipissing to Lake


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